Greenville is a city in Butler County, Alabama, United States. The city is the county seat of Butler County and is known as the Camellia City. The movement to change the official Alabama state flower from the goldenrod to the camellia originated in Greenville with legislative sponsors LaMont Glass and H.B. Taylor. Greenville was first settled in 1819. Its original name was Buttsville, but after becoming the county seat in 1822, its name was changed to Greenville, in remembrance of the former locale in South Carolina of many of the original settlers. The first county seat was at Fort Dale, a fortification that was named for Sam Dale, who fought to defend the area during the Creek War.

The median income for a household in the city was $26,664, and the median income for a family was $31,107. Males had a median income of $33,716 versus $24,928 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,649. About 20.3% of families and 24.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18 and 20.9% of those age 65 or over.

Prior to the Civil War, cotton farming was the main occupation in Butler County. During the 1850s lines along the Mobile and Ohio Railroad were constructed, making the county a major trading center. Greenville was a railroad town and became the center of commerce between Montgomery and south Alabama. During the late nineteenth century, the construction of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad through Greenville contributed further to the town’s success. At the turn of the century, Gulf Red Cedar Company and Factory in Greenville became a noted bucket manufacturing enterprise.